High surface area tunnels in hexagonal WO3
Wanmei Sun, Michael T Yeung, Andrew T Lech, Cheng-Wei Lin, Chain Lee, Tianqi Li, Xiangfeng Duan, Jun Zhou, Richard B Kaner
Nano Lett. 15, 4834-4838 (2015)
High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H+ and Li+, but not Na+ in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.