Graphene-assisted solution growth of vertically oriented organic semiconducting single crystals
Yue Wang, Jaime A Torres, Adam Z Stieg, Shan Jiang, Michael T Yeung, Yves Rubin, Santanu Chaudhuri, Xiangfeng Duan, Richard B Kaner
ACS Nano 9, 9486-9496 (2015)
Vertically oriented structures of single crystalline conductors and semiconductors are of great technological importance due to their directional charge carrier transport, high device density, and interesting optical properties. However, creating such architectures for organic electronic materials remains challenging. Here, we report a facile, controllable route for producing oriented vertical arrays of single crystalline conjugated molecules using graphene as the guiding substrate. The arrays exhibit uniform morphological and crystallographic orientations. Using an oligoaniline as an example, we demonstrate this method to be highly versatile in controlling the nucleation densities, crystal sizes, and orientations. Charge carriers are shown to travel most efficiently along the vertical interfacial stacking direction with a conductivity of 12.3 S/cm in individual crystals, the highest reported to date for an aniline oligomer. These crystal arrays can be readily patterned and their current harnessed collectively over large areas, illustrating the promise for both micro- and macroscopic device applications.