Highly stretchable van der Waals thin films for adaptable and breathable electronic membranes
The conformal integration of electronic systems with irregular, soft objects is essential for many emerging technologies. We report the design of van der Waals thin films consisting of staggered two-dimensional nanosheets with bond-free van der Waals interfaces. The films feature sliding and rotation degrees of freedom among the staggered nanosheets to ensure mechanical stretchability and malleability, as well as a percolating network of nanochannels to endow permeability and breathability. With an excellent mechanical match to soft biological tissues, the freestanding films can naturally adapt to local surface topographies and seamlessly merge with living organisms with highly conformal interfaces, rendering living organisms with electronic functions, including leaf-gate and skin-gate transistors. On-skin transistors allow high-fidelity monitoring and local amplification of skin potentials and electrophysiological signals.