High-Performance Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors with Long-Term Air Stability
Daowei He, Yiliu Wang, Yu Huang, Yi Shi, Xinran Wang, Xiangfeng Duan
Nano Lett. 19, 331-337 (2019)
Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) are of considerable interest for high-performance electronic devices for their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. However, the atomically thin geometry makes their electronic properties highly susceptible to the environment changes. In particular, some 2DLMs (e.g., black phosphorus (BP) and SnSe2) are unstable and could rapidly degrade over time when exposed to ambient conditions. Therefore, the development of proper passivation schemes that can preserve the intrinsic properties and enhance their lifetime represents a key challenge for these atomically thin electronic materials. Herein we introduce a simple, nondisruptive, and scalable van der Waals passivation approach by using organic thin films to simultaneously improve the performance and air stability of BP field-effect transistors (FETs). We show that dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) thin films can be readily deposited on BP via van der Waals epitaxy approach to protect BP against oxidation in ambient conditions over 20 d. Importantly, the noncovalent van der Waals interface between C8-BTBT and BP effectively preserves the intrinsic properties of BP, allowing us to demonstrate high-performance BP FETs with a record-high current density of 920 μA/um, hole drift velocity over 1 × 107 cm/s, and on/off ratio of 1 × 104 to ∼1 × 107 at room temperature. This approach is generally applicable to other unstable two-dimensional materials, defining a unique pathway to modulate their electronic properties and realize high-performance devices through hybrid heterojunctions.