Duan Research Group

Hetero-integrated Nanostructures and Nanodevices


Broadband gate-tunable terahertz plasmons in graphene heterostructures

Baicheng Yao, Yuan Liu, Shu-Wei Huang, Chanyeol Choi, Zhenda Xie, Jaime Flor Flores, Yu Wu, Mingbin Yu, Dim-Lee Kwong, Yu Huang, Yunjiang Rao, Xiangfeng Duan, Chee Wei Wong

Nature Photonics 12, 22-28 (2017)

Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material comprising carbon in a honeycomb lattice1, has brought breakthroughs across electronics, mechanics and thermal transport, driven by the quasiparticle Dirac fermions obeying a linear dispersion2,3. Here, we demonstrate a counter-pumped all-optical difference frequency process to coherently generate and control terahertz plasmons in atomic-layer graphene with octave-level tunability and high efficiency. We leverage the inherent surface asymmetry of graphene for strong second-order nonlinear polarizability4,5, which, together with tight plasmon field confinement, enables a robust difference frequency signal at terahertz frequencies. The counter-pumped resonant process on graphene uniquely achieves both energy and momentum conservation. Consequently, we demonstrate a dual-layer graphene heterostructure with terahertz charge- and gate-tunability over an octave, from 4.7 THz to 9.4 THz, bounded only by the pump amplifier optical bandwidth. Theoretical modelling supports our single-volt-level gate tuning and optical-bandwidth-bounded 4.7 THz phase-matching measurements through the random phase approximation, with phonon coupling, saturable absorption and below the Landau damping, to predict and understand graphene plasmon physics.
UCLA, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
607 Charles E. Young Drive East, Box 951569
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569
E-mail: xduan@chem.ucla.edu